1. The nineties saw the development of alternative networks of organization and production in the art field, which operated outside the institutional system but also took over some of the functions previously performed by it, in particular curating. From the development of net communities to an exponential increase in self-publishing, the politics of disseminating knowledge and building new communities in the art field was reformulated in this period. Marion von Osten and Kerstin Stakemeier analyze these developments and the mutations they have undergone in the past two decades.